Category Archives: Trees and Shrubs

woody plants, trees and shrubs

Mahonia x media ‘Charity’

Mahonia x media 'Charity'

Mahonia x media ‘Charity’

What shrub has evergreen foliage resembling both holly and fern, blooms in late fall/early winter with a candelabra of fragrant primrose yellow flowers, is drought tolerant once established and not a favorite of marauding deer? Answer: Mahonia x media ‘Charity, a hybrid of the two species, M. japonica and M. lomariifolia.

Ever since I saw a form of Mahonia  blooming in winter in the Plymouth MA garden of my friend Susanne, I have wanted to have this plant in my garden. Certainly, this is pushing the hardiness limits in our neck of the woods, so I have been  scouting for a very protected spot (thinking of a clearing in our now dense grove of Yellow Groove Bamboo).  ‘Charity’ is hardy to 0 degrees F, but we usually dip below that for at least a day or two each winter.

Of course all of you who live in balmier zones 7-9 should consider giving this winter interest plant a try.  It is a broadleaf evergreen, and so it would be prudent to choose a site with protection from winter winds and strong western sun. Plants develop a vase shape and usually grow to 5-7’ tall but can reach 10’ in mild climates, with a width of 3-6’. The flowers begin forming in late October, providing unexpected color when you need it most from late November into January. The multiple upright racemes of small flowers are magnets for bees, who may venture out on mild days. Rich blue fruit follow in spring, thus the common name Grape Holly,  and these are relished by birds. Older foliage may take on reddish tones in late winter, and tarnished leaves should be pruned once fresh growth begins to unfurl.

Mahonia can be grown in full sun or dappled shade, but if grown in full sun it it may require a bit more watering in dry spells. I should also add that the foliage has rather unfriendly sharp edges, and can deliver a “look but don’t touch” message to passerby.

Do you grow any forms of Mahonia and how have they performed where you live? Please share your experience.

Not Just Fall Color: Enkianthus campanulatus

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Enkianthus fall foliage

Redvein Enkianthus is about to betray its quiet charms any day now, with a display of technicolor fall foliage in shades of gold, orange, fiery red through purple. In mid to late spring it delights in a more soft-spoken way, bearing dainty clusters of white or red bells, depending on the cultivar. E. ‘Lipstick’ has white bells delicately edged in brick red, ‘Red Bells’ are colored, as the name suggests, coral red, and ‘Showy Lantern’. A slow growing shrub at first, it is often listed at growing from 6-8′ tall and 4-5′ wide, but with age it can easily reach 15′ or more with a wider reach. In fact, Enkianthus campanulatus can be pruned to from a lovely small tree. It is a perfect candidate for the partially shaded garden, both large and small.

Enkianthus campanulatus

Enkianthus campanulatus

Enkianthus 'Lipstick'

Enkianthus ‘Lipstick’

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Enkianthus c. ‘Red Bells’

Enkianthus c. 'Showy Lantern'

Enkianthus c. ‘Showy Lantern’

Grow Redvein Enkianthus in full sun or partial shade. It enjoys an enriched, well drained, acidic soil that stays evenly moist, although we have found it to be quite forgiving of dry spells, once established. It is deer resistant, but please note that deer will eat almost anything if hungry enough. Perfectly hardy in zones 5-8, with some reporting success growing it in zone 4B.

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Magnolia macrophylla ashei

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Magnolia macrophylla ashei foliage

There is no other way to say it: Ashe’s Big Leaf Magnolia is boldly beautiful. Folks often grow Magnolias for their early spring bloom, but you will want to seek out Magnolia macrophylla ashei for its large green foliage (up to 2+’ in length) which is undersided in a lovely shade of  silvery celadon. (Floral designers take note: the foliage is gorgeous when cut and dried for winter arrangements.)  Early summer flowers are sweetly fragrant with white petals  accented with a red brush stroke and are large as well, up to 1′ across.

Magniolia macrophylla ashei, a Southeastern US native,  forms a large shrub or small tree. It’s tropical appearance belies its hardiness as it is easily grown in zones 6-9 (with reports of it also growing in zone 5 with protection). The form ashei is a smaller tree than the straight species, and is often seen as a multistmemed shrub but can be pruned to form a small tree, growing to 15′ tall in its northern most range, and up to 25′ tall in milder climates. Big Leaf Magnolia prefers a sunny or partially shaded place in a border with rich evenly moist soil that has good drainage. Very windy spots are not recommended, as the gorgeous foliage will get damaged. Another positive note…Big Leaf Magnolia is deer resistant.

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3 Unique Hydrangea

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Hydrangea serrata ‘Kiyosumi’

More subtle and nuanced than the big mop heads, the species H. serrata hails from the higher elevations of Japan and Korea and is considered more reliably cold hardy than most H. macrophylla. What caught my eye about this particular selection H. ‘Kiyosumi’ , even before the blossoms developed, was the attractive brick red tint to the new foliage. The 4-6″ lace caps are composed of tiny rose tinted fertile flowers, accented with a skirt of larger florets colored white to pale pink with a rim of brick red. This compact selection grows 4′ x 4′, and is hardy to -10F without stem dieback. H. serrata ‘Kiyosumi’ does bloom on old wood, and I can vouch that it survived the winter of 2014-15 quite admirably.

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Hydrangea quercifolia ‘Snowflake’

An old favorite for the shade garden is the double form of Oakleaf Hydrangea, H. ‘Snowflake’. The bold oak leaf shaped foliage is handsome all season, but in early summer it bears long (10-15″) panicles of exquisite double white to celadon green florets which age beautiful to shades of pale green and rusty rose. It’s grace and beauty never ceases to draw compliments.

Like all H. quercifolia, ‘Snowflake’ blooms on old wood, so care should be taken when pruning so you are not sacrificing too many potential blossoms. H. quercifolia ‘Snowflake’ grows 7-8′ tall and wide, but the weight of the blossoms gives it an arching habit. Although this particular form can be grown in full sun if it has evenly moist soil, it has always been happier in our  cooler, shady border. It is hardy in zones 5-8.

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Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Zebra’

I was recently alerted about the new Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Zebra’ from my gardening friend Barbara Smith, who suggested it as a great Hydrangea for cut flowers. (Didn’t need much convincing; I bought 3). This new patented selection is a sport of the all white cultivar H. ‘Schneeball’ (German for Snowball) and is distinguished not only for its 3.5-5″ trusses but for its very dark green foliage and almost black stems. I hear the flowers age to a wonderful pale green. Plants form compact shrubs 3-4′ tall and wide.  I suspect that this form will only bloom on old wood, so I am trialing one in a protected area and the others in a more open spot in the garden. The literature says it is hardy to zone 5, but we’ll see if that means bud hardy, won’t we?

Daphne x ‘Lawrence Crocker’

DAPLAWWould you like to meet ‘Lawrence Crocker’, the easiest little Daphne we know and grow? It was discovered and named for one of the founders of Siskyou Rare Plant Nursery,  and thought to be a hybrid of D. arbuscula and  D. collinaDaphne ‘Lawrence Crocker’ is a little gem for the tiny urban garden, alpine or otherwise, as long as you can provide it a well drained soil, adequate moisture to establish and at least a half day of sun. Lawrence Crocker’ was one of the first specimens we planted in our rockery (20 years ago, at least), and it continues to charm us each spring with its fragrant dark pink blossoms.

Remember this is a diminutive plant.  It is suitable for trough gardens, but in the open garden it can grow up to 12″ tall and up to 18″ wide. It has proven durable and hardy for us in zone 6A.

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Salix chaenomeloides ‘Mt Aso’

Salix chaenomeloides ‘Mt Aso’

Even though the sun was shining today, I was still feeling discouraged by yesterday’s snowfall. As I went out to make sure all the greenhouses were properly closed for the day I caught a glimpse of pink, shimmering in the late afternoon light. Greeting me with optimistic charm was the pink pussy willow Salix chaenomeloides ‘Mt Aso’ . I had planted one last fall, and it was set off quite dramatically by the freshly fallen snow.

Salix chaenomeloides is the Latin name for giant pussy willow. It is native to Japan but adapts well to a wide range of garden situations including sandy, average and even quite moist soil. Plants can get quite large, 15′ or more, but in order to have a steady supply of branches which will bear the rosy red catkins (which are male flowers by the way, are you surprised?) you should coppice (cut back to 1-2′ above ground) every 2 or 3 years. This will keep plant size a more reasonable 6-8′, and provide you with an ample supply of cut branches for winter arrangements

Salix chaenomeloides ‘Mt Aso’ is hardy to zone 4. You know you want one. Go for it. I guarantee that if you plant  ‘Mt. Aso’ this year, you’ll be smiling next March, even if “return to winter” weather tends to make you grumpy.

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Stewartia pseudocamellia var koreana

Stewartia_koreana_flower500It would be a difficult choice, but if I had to select one deciduous tree for my garden, it would have to be the Korean form of Stewartia pseudocamellia, and this is why: here is a small tree (25-30′) with striking interest in all 4 seasons. In winter, a mature Stewartia pseudocamellia var koreana shows off its handsome narrow pyramidal shape, which broadens a bit with age, and lovely exfoliating bark, exposing shades of tan, pink and gray. In spring, it breaks anew with fresh dark green elliptical leaves, arranged alternately along its branches. In early summer, lovely 3″ white camellia like flowers are displayed. Each blossom only lasts a short time, but there are so many produced over several weeks that you never feel it is not performing.  In autumn, Stewartia pseudocamellia is truly mesmerizing, flashing you with foliage in shades of brilliant red, orange, gold and green.Stewartia_koreana_fall

Stewartia pseudocamellia is native to Japan and Korea, and the Korean form is generally considered a bit hardier. The Korean form tends to have a more narrow pyramidal shape than the species found in Japan. In its native habitat, it is found growing with Clethra barbinervis and Enkianthus campanulatus, both exceptional large shrubs or small trees, with multi season interest.  Stewartia pseudacamellia var. koreana grows best in sun or partial shade in a humus rich but well drained soil, out of strong wind. It is hardy to minus 20F and grows well in zones 5-8.

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Viburnum dilatatum ‘Michael Dodge’

Viburnum dilatatum ‘Michael Dodge’

Meet ‘Michael Dodge‘, a golden berried hybrid of Linden Viburnum. He is a cheerful fellow,  who shows off in late spring with a bevy of white lacey flowers and then later develops clusters of showy yellow fruit, which is a sight in our garden right now. The birds are leaving the fruit alone, but that is fine with me because the fruit bearing stems are perfect additions to autumn floral arrangements.

I received a nice note from the plant’s breeder, Mr. Michael Dodge himself.  He informed me that he made a deliberate cross between V. dilatatum and V. d. Xanthocarpum in hopes of getting a larger fruited yellow form in his days working at Wintherthur in Delaware. Mr. Dodge left Winterthur not long after, but was notified that there were some very nice clones from the seedlings he planted. Harold Bruce, the garden curator at that time, named the best yellow fruited clone after him.

Viburnun dilatatum is of Asian ancestry and although it looks perfectly at home in a naturalistic border, it is not as favored by birds and wildlife (plant V. dentatum and other native viburnum species). What it does do is provide dramatic color in the  autumn landscape.  Something you should note is that in order for a good berry set you need another cultivar of V. dilatatum nearby. This may sound confusing, so I should clarify. You should plant a different clone for good cross pollination, and Mr Dodge specifically recommends Viburnum dilatatum ‘Cardinal Candy, who will put on a show of its own with bright red fruit.

Viburnum dilatatum ‘Michael Dodge will grow 8-10′ tall and wide. He is not fussy about soil, but will certainly appreciate a fertile loam and grows best in full sun or partial shade. ‘Michael Dodge  is hardy through zone 5.

Caryopteris x ‘White Surprise’ PPAF

Caryopteris 'White Surprise'

Caryopteris ‘White Surprise’

What’s not to love? For three years now,  this white variegated form of Blue Mist Shrub has been a stunning plant in one of our sunny raised beds, providing great form, foliage and easy performance despite dry conditions and humid heat. ‘White Surprise’,  a sport of Caryopteris  ‘Heavenly Blue’, becomes a handsome 3′ x 3′ mound of aromatic white edged foliage, topped with contrasting medium blue flowers from mid-summer through September. Of particular note is how well the white edged foliage resists leaf scorch. Bees and butterflies flock to the whorled clusters of blossoms. It pairs well with so many other long season interest plants, such as Echinacea ‘Virgin’, Alstroemeria ‘Mauve Majesty and Sedum ‘Maestro’ .

Grow Caryopteris ‘White Surprise’ in well drained soil in full. It is hardy in zones 5-9, although there may be more winter die back in colder climates. Not a problem though: just cut it back hard in mid spring. Caryopteris is deer resistant, and it’s lovely white/green/blue coloring is a cooling sight in the hot summer garden.

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Cornus kousa ‘Wolf Eyes’

Cornus kousa 'Wolf Eyes'As I get older I am so appreciative of all the trees Chris and I have planted over the years, often as little twigs which we acquired from specialty mail order nurseries or the Arboretum Plant Sale. One that has become our favorite is Cornus kousa ‘Wolf Eyes’,  a variegated form of Chinese or Japanese Dogwood.

Wolf Eye’s‘ was selected at Manor View Farm in Monkton MD, and has been declared by plant expert Paul Capiello to be one of the best variegated forms of Cornus kousa. Eventual height depends on siting and hardiness zone (hardy in zones 5-9), but reports range from 10-20′ with equal spread. Our ‘Wolf Eyes’ is a now 12′ x 10′ specimen. The gray green leaves are delicately rimmed with white, and will curl slightly as protective measure when cited in hot sun. What we find remarkable is how well the white “flowers” (really showy bracts) stand out against the white variegation, when it “blooms” in June. As the flowers fade, curious edible fruit begin to form. They look like red raspberries on short sticks when they ripen in early fall. Fall foliage color takes on pinkish red tints.

Site ‘Wolf Eyes’ in full or half day sun, and, no surprise, in a rich well drained but adequately moist soil. Water well in dry spells., but excessive overhead watering from a sprinkler or irrigation system  can cause spotting of the foliage. C. kousa is resistant to Anthracnose, but too much exposure to wetness for extended periods will cause fungal problems.