Tips for Wintering Over Tender Plants

Echeveria 'Afterglow' with Aptenia cordata ,Foxtail Asparagus and Phormium 'Sundowner' in a 14" pot.

Echeveria ‘Afterglow’ with Aptenia cordata ,Foxtail Asparagus and Phormium ‘Sundowner’ in a 14″ pot.

Very soon, a frosty night will be threatening. If you haven’t already, now is time to think about which tender plants you want to preserve for next year. You may have limited space and if you have collected a lot of plants, you will want to prioritize your selections. Here are links on recent blog posts on wintering over tender plants.

Wintering Over I: Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

Wintering Over Succulents


Winter Wreath Making Tips

 

 

Hinoki Cypress Wreath with Elkhorn Cedar. Love the little cones on the Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) and the undersides of Elkhorn Cedar  (Thujopsis dolobrata) are fabulous!

 

Mixed Greens Wreath. Dwarf Blue Spruce (Picea glauca ‘Montgomery’), Littleleaf Boxwood (Buxus sinica ‘Justin Brouwer’), plus several cultivars of Hinoki Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa cvs. ‘Confucious’, ‘Crippsi’, and ‘Jade’)

 

Mixed Greens Wreath with Golden Berried Blue Holly (Ilex meserve ‘Golden Girl’), Littleleaf Boxwood (Buxus sinica ‘Justin Brouwer’), Various Hinoki Cypress

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Littleleaf Boxwood  (Buxus sinica ‘Justin Brouwer’) with Blue Holly (Ilex meserve ‘Blue Princess’ ) plus wreath making supplies

After 25 years of planting unusual evergreens on our property, I feel like now our plants have enough growth to afford plenty of interesting options for creating winter wreaths. This year’s crop provided me with lots of interesting material, and while I was taking cuttings I was also pruning at the same time.

I hate making the same composition twice, so each wreath has a character of its own. I’ve used various wreath making forms in the past, but this year I went back to using wire forms which I covered with moistened long fiber sphagnum moss secured with a 22 gauge florist wire.

Here are a few tips:

  • You will need a lot of material for even a small form, especially if you want big fat full wreaths. The amount shown in the silver pan was just about enough to create a 16″ wreath.
  • If  your base is 12″ wide, expect the finish sized to be about 18″ (or more in diameter, depending how far out your branches extend).
  • Broadleaf greens such as Boxwood, Holly and Rhododendron desiccate  quickly, especially if they are placed in a warm space or in a sunny spot. Using a base that has moistened sphagnum and tucking in the branch tips of the little bunches helps keep them hydrated. Mist or soak your boxwood or holly wreath often. Also, applying an anti desiccant helps prevent the leaves from drying out.
  • Holly berries are often tucked along the inner lower branches. Try to position the cuttings so you can see the berries, then trim back as necessary.
  • Repetition of your assorted bundles helps you create a balanced circle.
  • After you create your wreath, hang it and step back to see where it may need editing. You can always trim back or tuck in more cuttings.
  • Weather resistant ribbons add a touch of color to simple wreaths made from one or 2 plants, such as boxwood or holly. I prefer not to use ribbon when I have a lot of interesting leaves and cones to admire.

 


Giving Thanks

As much as gardeners quickly express frustration about weather, insect pests, or deer browsing, we really are a thankful lot. We are thankful more often than we acknowledge :  for sunshine, rain, snow cover, good bugs, birds, rich earth….Most importantly,  I think we are grateful for the plants which grace our gardens.

After yesterday’s much needed torrential rainfall (thankful!), this morning’s view from my window is tranquil except for the activity at the bird feeders. I’m viewing a corner of our garden which is designed with plants that provide winter interest: Hinoki Cypress Chamaecyparis obtusa, Japanese Forest Grass Hakonechloa macro, Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium ‘Blue Heaven’ , Hellebores Helleborus ‘Golden Lotus’, a beloved Japanese Maple Acer palmatum ‘Katsura‘, a Wheel Tree  Trochodendron aralioides (recently planted, fingers crossed…putting it through the hardiness test) plus the showiest plant right now, Winterberry, Ilex verticillata ‘Berry Heavy’ which like all of the hollies this year is heavy with fruit.

Soon the birds will pick off the winterberry fruit, and this picture will change as it will again and again throughout the year. I am reluctant to see blossoms fade and watch leaves fall, but then I realize I am truly grateful that this picture from my window is always changing. A new day, a new season awaits which will provide new gifts to be thankful for.

 

Happy Thanksgiving!


Wintering Over Non Hardy Plants

We’ve been asked recently if we had ever written a post on wintering over tender plants in cold climates. The answer is yes, we have, but it certainly would be convenient if we posted easy access links to the 3 articles for those who may have missed the postings or for those who want a quick refresher.

Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

Wintering Over Succulents

 


Winter Prep for Succulent Pots

This 36″ planted zen bowl is way to big to bring indoors

We plant up some pretty large non winter hardy succulent containers here at Avant Gardens, and we are always asked  “Do you move that big pot inside for the winter?” Our answer: “No, we just take it apart and repot the plants which we especially want to save.”  Yes, space is always an issue, and we have greenhouses.

Most home gardeners do not have a greenhouse, but have a sunroom or a bright indoor space that is south or southwest facing. Non hardy succulents do not need a lot of heat, and will be fine in spaces that stay above 35-40F degrees. This could mean a space in a cool attic, basement or in a garage that stays above freezing. Because available space is often limited, you may want to select the choicest, slower growing specimens (such as a large Echeveria or Aeonium) and not save every small clump of sedum or string of pearls.

Here is a brief photo essay demonstrating the dismantling of a big planter. Be sure to have on hand an array of different sized containers and a sharp draining succulent potting mix to pot up your specimens.

A mixed Succulent Planter before the frost.

Your planters are probably looking spectacular in September, before nights start dipping into the 30′s.

A few succulents have been tonged by a frost.

Last October we were surprised one morning when temperatures dipped below freezing the night before, and realized it was time to bring our plants indoors.

Carefully lift the root mass from the container.

You can keep tight growing clumps of mixed plants together.

Transfer the lifted plants into a handy wheelbarrow or cart.

Transplant into a pot that is just big enough for the root mass.

You don’t want to use pots that are too big. Remember you probably do not have a lot of room, plus the pots (roots) will stay drier if there is not excess soil.

Sitting pretty on a sunny windowsill.

Do not fertilize during the winter, and water only as needed. The frequency will depend on how warm and sunny a space  you have. Check for pests periodically. Mealybug has a way of suddenly appearing on plants indoors. A simple cure is using rubbing alcohol on a Q-tip or piece of cloth and rubbing off the offenders. Rotate the pots so that your plants do not lean in only one direction towards the light.

If at the end of the winter you have rather awkward, leggy plants, do not be afraid to cut them back sharply. The plants will respond with new tighter growth as longer days provide more sunlight. If you want more babies, let the cuttings heel and then stick on a slightly moist propagating tray of sand and perlite. Begin a light fertilizing program in March or April, as when plants and or cuttings show new growth.  We recommend an all purpose seaweed/fish emulsion for succulents.

 


Natural Controls for Winter Moth

Winter Moth

It’s about to begin. In a couple of weeks here in southern New England, (late November), we’ll start to notice clouds of dull gray brown moths fluttering about at night, attracted to the glow of porch and street lights. Mating season for the Winter Moth, Operophtera brumata, is about to begin as both male and female moths emerge from their pupae. They will procreate into December, or as long as mild enough temperatures prevail.

In our recent research for the best methods to combat this destructive pest (Winter Moth caterpillars devour new plant growth on many of our most highly desirable ornamental trees and shrubs), we came across great news! University of Massachusetts Entomologist Joe Elkinton and his team have solid evidence that a parasitic fly, Cyzenis albicans, is an impressive natural control for Winter Moth. At four test sites where the parasite has been released throughout southeastern MA (Seekonk, Hingham, Falmouth and Wellesley)  populations of winter moth have dramatically decreased. Here is a link to an   article.

Isn’t that fantastic to read? However, while we are waiting for this helpful parasitic fly to move into our neighborhoods, we must begin preventive measures. It is necessary to understand the Winter Moth lifescycle to plan and time your defense.  The first meaure is to apply sticky tree bands around treasured specimens, which trap the females as they adhere and climb up tree trunks, emitting their sex pheromone to attract the males. After the mating scene has occurred, female moths continue to climb to the top of  trees and shrubs and then lay their eggs in the bark and crevices near branches. Adult moths die at this stage.

Other types of botanical controls can be applied over the winter and early spring. In late winter, dormant oil spray can be applied to branches to suffocate the eggs. In early spring, Bacillus thuringiensis a.k.a. BT, a beneficial bacteria, can be used to effectively control the caterpillars as they emerge from their egg sacs and seek nourishment from the young unfurling foliage. Spinosad is another bio insecticide, and is available to homes owner under product labels Monterey Garden Insect Spray and  to licensed pesticide applicators as the product Conserve. Care should be taken to avoid applying Spinosad when bees are active.

Recommended Further Reading



A Dreaded Chore: Repotting an Agave

sad, sad Agave

I’ll confess. I had avoided repotting (for almost a year now) what had become one very sad looking Agave.  The older leaves had become brown and ugly, and obnoxious weeds had taken root. The piercing tips and teeth on the leaves looked ferocious, and I didn’t want to give blood. So there it sat, in a neglected corner, a woeful sight indeed.

As we were gathering all the tender plants to bring inside for the winter, it was time to make a choice about whether to save or toss the misbegotten Agave. A decision was made: yes, save it. A plant that has the will to carry on despite such neglect deserves not only respect; it deserves admiration. And as it turned out, grooming and repotting wasn’t a big deal after all. Here’s how we went about it:

The first thing to do is put on some protective gloves. Carefully remove the Agave from its pot, standing over a wheelbarrow or large receptacle to catch the debris. Tilt the plant so you can get at the base of the crown with your clippers and remove the dried up foliage. Next, loosen up the soil around the roots and remove any weeds that may have established, teasing out their roots so they won’t make a comeback.

Use a very well drained soil mix amended with sand and perlite, and if you have access to grit or gravel, add some too. (We don’t add fertilizer, since Agave are very light feeders. Instead, we liquid feed with fish emuslion/seaweed 2 or 3 times a year.) Position the Agave in the center of the pot, and then backfill. The repotting is accomplished, and we can now place the Agave in a spot where it merits attention.

carefully remove old leaves

loosening the roots

Agave, more happy

 


A Refresher: Wintering Over Plants

We’ve been asked recently if we had ever written a post on wintering over tender plants in cold climates. The answer is yes, we have, in the fall of 2010, but it certainly would be convenient if we posted easy access links to the 3 articles for those who may have missed the postings or for those who want a quick refesher.

Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Not quite ready for bed

Hoop Frames for Extending the Season

Thanksgiving is a bit early this year, which is good and bad. Good, because we can enjoy this autumnal feast among family and friends without paying heed to retailers’ nagging “there’s only 4 weeks left before Christmas”.  Bad, because, if you’re like us, there are still more tasks and cleanup to do outside, and we gave ourselves a tentative deadline for wrapping up the “putting the garden to bed” chores –Thanksgiving.

Fact is I don’t think there’s ever been a year when we’ve completely “finished” this end of the season chore. There’s always so much to do. A prioritizing list helps us focus on the most important tasks, but we always have so many good intentions. If the weather holds out longer, we’ll take advantage of whatever reasonable days we get to plant the rest of the bulbs or to tackle dividing and transplanting the Siberian Iris that haven’t bloomed well for 3 years.

And what if the garden itself doesn’t want to be “finished”? Our raised vegetable beds are still producing lettuce, kale, carrots, parsnips and beets. We’ve mulched our beds with rinsed and dried seaweed, which protects and insulates the soil for easy digging. To extend the season as long as possible, this spring Chris purchased a hoop bender from Johnny’s Selected Seeds which enables us to make inexpensive supports from galvanized electrical conduit for covering planting beds. The installed hoop frames can be covered with Remay or clear plastic to rebuke the hard frosts. These hoops just might enable us to harvest lettuce into the New Year!



Seed Collecting Tips

Clockwise from top left: Paeonia obovata, Amsonia hubrictii, Aster laeve, Nicotiana knightiana

The most frequently asked question regarding seed collecting is “How do I know if seed is ripe?” Here’s a very general answer, for seeds of different plants ripen at different times, and their appearance, when ripe, can be as different as the individual plants that produced them. You need to keep a watchful eye. Observe the green immature pods over time, and suddenly you’ll notice brown seed capsules ready to split and burst. If you are not vigilant, you may discover empty seed pods days later, and your opportunity will have passed. (You can also try placing a paper bag over the immature seed capsule, securing it with string. When the seed ripens it will be contained in the bag.)

Collecting Tips: Mature seeds are usually dark in color, firm, and dry. Seeds that are green and moist are usually immature and generally will not germinate or will produce unhealthy seedlings. The flesh of pulpy fruits often becomes soft and changes from green/yellow, to red or blue-purple when ripe.

Cleaning: In a cool dry space, place dry seed capsules in a paper bag, secure with string and hang upside down.  Clustered seeds of composite plants such as Asters and Marigolds might benefit from being laid out on newspaper layers and allowed to dry more completely. Remove the chaff and other vegetable matter which may harbor fungal spores which will spread and infect the seeds. Moist seed from fleshy fruit such as tomatoes, or from ornamentals such as Arisaema, should have the mucilage (the wet medium surrounding seed) rinsed off. Place the ripened seed in a sieve and rinse off thoroughly. Spread rinsed seed on layers of newspaper and allow to air dry.

Storage: Only store cleaned and dry seed. The combination of moisture and warmth will cause spoilage. Store seed in paper envelopes or bags to allow them to breathe. Don’t use plastic baggies, which may trap moisture. Keep your seeds in a cool dark dry space. Your refrigerator would work, if you have room, or perhaps a closet or cabinet in a cool room. Clearly label all packets with all pertinent information.

Important: Remember the lower the humidity and temperature in storage, the longer the viability of the stored seed

For more info online: http://theseedsite.co.uk/harvesting.html If you really want the specifics, you need the seed germinating bible. Norman Deno’s book Seed Germination, Theory and Practice can be purchased through the North American Rock Garden Society’s Bookstore.