Tag Archives: winter care for tender plants

Winter Prep for Tender Succulents

sucpotfall500_72As we advance into autumn, your succulent planters may look so beautiful that  you may want to wait until the last minute to protect your plants.

deconstruct1_succulent500It usually happens sometime in mid October in southeastern MA,  when a cloudless night will allow temperatures to drop into the low 30’s and a light frost nips unprotected tender plantings (yep, that’s what happened here). If a frost catches you by surprise, your plants may only have suffered slight foliage damage which can easily be trimmed off.

deconstruct2_succulent500Small containers can simply be moved inside, but you’re probably not going to want to move a big heavy pot. The only thing to do to preserve your plants in this case is to dismantle your planting. Carefully pry loose the root balls to get at the plants. (Thanks  Peter Tracey for acting as our model!)

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Have a wheelbarrow nearby to transfer your unearthed roots.

deconstruct6_ssucculent500Prepare a very well drained planting medium suitable for succulents. We use a barky perennial mix with added perlite and coarse sand. It is important that your plants don’t spend the winter in soil which stays moist all the time. Try to transplant into pots that are just big enough to contain the root ball. (This will help keep the pots on the dry side and will not take up much space.)

deconstruct_succulents.onPlace your pots near the sunniest windows in your home. The days are getting shorter and low light levels may can cause your plants to stretch towards the window. Rotate your pots to compensate.  We water only when the pots are dry, and wait until late winter or early spring to fertilize.

See the Rehabbing Succulents Post for spring care.

Tips for Wintering Over Tender Plants

Echeveria 'Afterglow' with Aptenia cordata ,Foxtail Asparagus and Phormium 'Sundowner' in a 14" pot.

Echeveria ‘Afterglow’ with Aptenia cordata ,Foxtail Asparagus and Phormium ‘Sundowner’ in a 14″ pot.

Very soon, a frosty night will be threatening. If you haven’t already, now is the time to think about which tender plants you want to preserve for next year. You may have limited space and if you have collected a lot of plants, you will want to prioritize your selections. Here are links to recent blog posts on wintering over tender plants.

Wintering Over I: Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

Wintering Over Succulents

Rehabbing Succulent Planters

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A succulent planter in mid April…ready for rehab.

Those of us who live in colder climates may be thinking it’s time to rehab last year’s tender succulent containers. Over the winter, these planters have been trying to soak up as much sun as possible on windowsills and in sunrooms, but it’s a sure thing that by mid spring many of your plants have become unbecomingly leggy. You have two options: disassemble the planter, plant by plant, then cut back and replant in fresh soil, or if the planter is not overcrowded or out of proportion, you can see if just trimming back is the answer.

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3 weeks later….the plants in this pot have begun to flush with new growth

I’m encouraging you to be ruthless when you cut back. After cutting off their heads these plants won’t look happy immediately, but the alternative could become down right ugly. Any cuttings from pinching can be stuck in sand  and rooted for more plants. You may find that some of the spreading succulents have exceeded their bounds and need to be lifted and divided…. Use these little divisions to tuck in around the container where their are “plant gaps”. Fertilize your planter with a seaweed/fish emulsion. It will take a number of weeks and some warm sunny weather for your planters to start to perk up.

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After cutting back the creepers, replace with fresh cuttings to fill holes and balance the design of your vertical planter.

Vertical Succulent Gardens are often in need of cutting back and editing. We usually leave our vertical planters horizontal on benches during the winter, to minimize stretching.  Still some plants such as the rosettes of Sempervivum or Echeveria may have become overwhelmed by creeping Sedum and Delosperma, and need to be replaced. We take fresh cuttings and secure them in place with floral pins. Fertilize with seaweed/fish emulsion , keeping the wall planter flat while the new cuttings root in, and move outside as soon as nights  stay in the 50’s or above. In a few weeks, growth will begin to fill in the empty spaces, and then you can hang.

Vertical Garden ...3 weeks later

Vertical Garden 3 weeks later

 related posts…:

Wintering Over Tender Succulents

Growing Vertically

Wintering Over Non Hardy Plants

We’ve been asked recently if we had ever written a post on wintering over tender plants in cold climates. The answer is yes, we have, but it certainly would be convenient if we posted easy access links to the 3 articles for those who may have missed the postings or for those who want a quick refresher.

Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

Wintering Over Succulents

 

A Dreaded Chore: Repotting an Agave

sad, sad Agave

I’ll confess. I had avoided repotting (for almost a year now) what had become one very sad looking Agave.  The older leaves had become brown and ugly, and obnoxious weeds had taken root. The piercing tips and teeth on the leaves looked ferocious, and I didn’t want to give blood. So there it sat, in a neglected corner, a woeful sight indeed.

As we were gathering all the tender plants to bring inside for the winter, it was time to make a choice about whether to save or toss the misbegotten Agave. A decision was made: yes, save it. A plant that has the will to carry on despite such neglect deserves not only respect; it deserves admiration. And as it turned out, grooming and repotting wasn’t a big deal after all. Here’s how we went about it:

The first thing to do is put on some protective gloves. Carefully remove the Agave from its pot, standing over a wheelbarrow or large receptacle to catch the debris. Tilt the plant so you can get at the base of the crown with your clippers and remove the dried up foliage. Next, loosen up the soil around the roots and remove any weeds that may have established, teasing out their roots so they won’t make a comeback.

Use a very well drained soil mix amended with sand and perlite, and if you have access to grit or gravel, add some too. (We don’t add fertilizer, since Agave are very light feeders. Instead, we liquid feed with fish emuslion/seaweed 2 or 3 times a year.) Position the Agave in the center of the pot, and then backfill. The repotting is accomplished, and we can now place the Agave in a spot where it merits attention.

carefully remove old leaves

loosening the roots

Agave, happier looking now

 

A Refresher: Wintering Over Plants

We’ve been asked recently if we had ever written a post on wintering over tender plants in cold climates. The answer is yes, we have, in the fall of 2010, but it certainly would be convenient if we posted easy access links to the 3 articles for those who may have missed the postings or for those who want a quick refesher.

Taking Cuttings

Wintering Over Tender Perennials Indoors 

Wintering Over Roots of Tender Perennials

Wintering Over Tender Perennial Roots

After a hard frost, unearthed Canna, Salvia, stored Dahlias

This article is appearing before most of us have had a killing frost, but take a moment to read this now so you’ll have an idea of what to do when the time comes. The processes described below are general and reliable instructions, but we’ve had luck simply wintering over dormant plants in the containers they were grown in, stored in cool, dark spaces which stay above 35F.

WAIT UNTIL AFTER there has been a killing frost, when the foliage has blackened and in some cases toppled over (you want to be sure active growth is halted). Then it is time to gently unearth the corms, tuberous roots and rhizomes of tender perennials such as Canna, Colocasia, Oxalis, Gladiolus, Dahlia, Salvia guaranitica, Mirabilis, Phygelius and others. Be careful, as cuts and breakage of fleshy tubers invite disease and decay. (If pieces of root become broken or cut, remove the affected divisions or treat with a garden fungicide to prevent fungal diseases from developing and spreading.) It is always a wise practice to sterilize shovels and forks after digging each clump, so as not to spread disease. Remember to write on a tag each variety of plant as they are dug, and attach. It is so easy to mix up root stocks, especially if you’re growing more than one selection of a certain plant.

The next thing you should do is clean and cure your roots. Wash off with a hose sprayer as much of the clinging soil as possible, which will rid you of possible pests and pathogens lingering in the soil. You may want to dip the clean roots in a fungicide solution at this point as a preventative action. (We may try the botanical all purpose Neem this year, which has fungicidal properties as well as insecticidal.) Lay the roots to cure or dry in a protected well ventilated area out of direct sunlight. This may take a few days or up to a week or two, depending on the plants, weather and temperature conditions.

In the meantime, locate some ventilated containers to store the roots, such as wooden crates or apple baskets. Plastic covered bins are easy to acquire, but be sure to puncture holes in the sides for ventilation. Be sure to include a label in each bin. First put down an insulating layer of clean wood shavings, almost dry peat moss, a well drained barky soil mix which is just a tad moist, or even sand, and lay down the roots, covering each layer with an inch of your medium, being careful to not to let the roots touch. Place the bins in a dark cool area that stays above freezing. A cool, slightly humid root cellar would be perfect, and if you live in an ancient house like we do, your cellar may be the perfect spot. Any basement, shed or garage that is dimly lit and cool will be fine, as long as it stays above freezing. You may want to check the bins occasionally to monitor if  mold is beginning to develop. If you do catch fungal problems, immediately discard the affected roots and remove what is left that look healthy. Treat the healthy roots with a fungicide, (acts as a preventative) and place in a clean bin with fresh shavings, soil mix or sand.

Wintering Tender Plants Indoors

Suddenly, one morning you wake up, and the chill in the air alerts you that autumn has unofficially arrived. Once the nighttime temperatures begin to dip into the 40’s, it’s time to start bringing plants indoors, beginning with those that are only hardy to the warmer zones 9, 10 and 11. (Think some Alpinia, Coleus, Cuphea, Acalypha, Alternanthera, Cyperus, Impatiens, etc.) If available space is a concern, be selective and choose the hardest to acquire specimens first. Do you have a warm space available that is well lit and humid enough for tropicals, such as a bathroom or laundry room? Remember that indoor heating systems create a warm but dry air environment. Plants that prefer more arid conditions, such as tender succulents, Pelargonium, and some Begonia easily adapt to the transition indoors.

Important! Here are two things you should do first. The days are getting shorter and there is less light available indoors. Plants will begin to respond to the change in temperature and light by dropping foliage, and in some cases flower production ceases. To counter the low light levels, we recommend trimming back large leafy plants so there is less growth for the plants to support. Also, inspect plants for insect activity and as well as burrowing snails, slugs and other hitchhikers. Spray with a botanical pest control, such as insecticidal soap or Neem. Spray again in 7-10 days to arrest any late hatching, and monitor in the weeks to come.

Plants that are hardy to zones 7 and 8 can handle cool winter temperatures in the 35-40 degree F. range, and will do well in a sunny attic, basement or garage. These plants include Abutilon, Phormium, Fuchsia, Phygelius, Hebe, Coprosma, Astelia, Centaurea, many Salvia and Pelargonium, to name a few. Remember that since their growth has slowed down due to lower light levels, stop fertilizing and water just enough to keep them from drying out, since  constantly wet soil contributes to root rot.

Next week’s article: Storing dormant roots.

Wintering Over I: Taking Cuttings

Saving Coleus Cuttings

You may have acquired a collection of stunning tender perennials that have added so much to your containers and gardens, but soon, frost will be imminent. Before you drag dozens (hundreds?) of pots indoors, first consider how much storage room your home/garage/cellar offers, (let’s assume you don’t have a greenhouse, but if you do, terrific!). Usually space is quite limited, and you’ll need to be ruthless in deciding what gets saved. Focus on the hard to find varieties. Next, decide what needs to be actively growing, and what can be stored as dormant roots (more on that in later blog postings). In general, plants that are the least cold tolerant (zones 9, 10 and 11), i.e. Coleus, need to be kept in an active state and need warm indoor temperatures.

We found that taking cuttings of easy to root plants like Coleus, Salvia and Cuphea is one way to limit the number of big bushy plants that will compete for light on your windowsill. Begin taking cuttings at the beginning of September and be sure to label each variety. Select non flowering tips with 2-3 nodes and remove the lower leaves. Dip the tips in a light rooting hormone and stick in a tray or pot of a light potting medium or sand. Place in a shady warm spot and water/mist several times a day for the next 2 weeks or so. A gentle tug will let you know when roots have taken hold. Once decent roots are set, gently unearth and transplant into small pots, or leave in the rooting pot itself. Go light on the fertilizing this fall and winter, since you do not want to encourage too much growth. In the spring, transplant into a richer soil mix. You can begin taking more cuttings as soon as vigorous fresh growth permits.